Application #2: Nose Copy

Lesson
Materials

Nose

Anatomy:
The nasal cavity is the most superior part of the respiratory tract, which extends from the vestibule of the nose to the nasopharynx.

Vasculature:
The nose has a very rich vascular supply. The nose is supplied with blood by the internal and external carotid arteries.

Internal carotid branches:
  • Anterior ethmoidal artery
  • Posterior ethmoidal artery
The ethmoidal arteries are a branch of the ophthalmic artery, which descend into the nasal cavity through the cribriform plate.

External carotid branches:
  • Sphenopalatine artery
  • Greater palatine artery
  • Superior labial artery
  • Lateral nasal arteries
The veins of the nose tend to follow the arteries and drain into the pterygoid plexus, facial vein and cavernous sinus.

Innervation:
The nerve innervation of the nose can be functionally divided into both special and general innervation.

Special sensory innervation refers to the ability of the nose to smell and is enabled by the olfactory nerves. The olfactory bulb, which is part of the brain, lies on the superior surface of the cribriform plate and lies above the nasal cavity. Branches of the olfactory nerve run through the cribriform plate to provide special sensory innervation to the nose.

General sensory innervation to the septum and lateral walls is delivered by the nasopalatine nerve, which is a branch of maxillary nerve and the nasociliary nerve, a branch of the ophthalmic nerve. Innervation to the external skin of the nose is supplied by the trigeminal nerve.

Possible Effects of a Strike:
  • fracture of the nasal cartilage
  • decreased vision due to watering of the eyes
  • blood flow into the pharynx
  • blockage of air flow
  • deviation (sublaxation) of the septum
  • blood clot can form in the tissue that separates the nostrils (septum)
  • perforation (hole) in the septum
  • can cause the bridge of the nose to collapse (saddle nose deformity)
  • severe infection, such as meningitis or a brain abscess, or other CSF infection